Essay on mental hygiene and education 2021

 Essay on mental hygiene and education 2021

In this essay we will discuss about the importance of mental hygiene in education. After reading this essay to know about: - 1. Meaning of mental health 2. Foundations of mental health 3. Defense or adjustment mechanism. 4. Meaning and purpose of mental hygiene 5. Mental hygiene concept in education 6. Mental health and other details of classical teacher.


Essay on the meaning of mental health

Essay on the foundation of mental health

Essay on defense or adjustment mechanism

Essay on the meaning and purpose of mental hygiene

Essay on mental hygiene concept in education

Essay on mental health of class teacher

Essay on mental health and curriculum

Essay on mental health and method of teaching and classroom practices

Essay on mental health and school administration

Essay on mental health and discipline

1. Essay on the meaning of mental health:


Mental health, which is today considered an important aspect of one's total health status, is a fundamental factor that contributes to the maintenance of physical health as well as social effectiveness.

It is a general state of goodness, and in the words of Johns, Sutton, and Webster, "Life has a positive bat relative quality. It is a condition characterized by the average person who meets the demands of life on the basis of his abilities and limitations ”. By the word 'relative' we mean that the degree of mental health that a person achieves at one time is constantly changing. According to Headfield, 'mental health is the complete and harmonious work of the whole personality'.

It is a positive, active quality of a person's daily life. This quality of living is manifested in the behavior of a person, whose body and mind are working together in the same direction. Their thoughts, feelings and actions work equally towards the common end.

It means the ability to balance feelings, desires, ambitions and ideals in one's daily life, as well as to confront and accept the realities of life. It shows such habits of work and attitude towards people and things that bring maximum satisfaction and happiness to the person. But the person gets this satisfaction and happiness with a social order or group without ceremony, which he or she is.


From this one can conclude that there are two important aspects of mental health. It is both personal and social. The personal aspect suggests that the person is internally adjusted. He is confident, sufficient and free from internal conflicts and tensions or inconsistencies. He is able to mold himself to new circumstances. But he achieves this internal adjustment in a social set up.

The society has certain value systems, customs and traditions by which it controls itself and promotes the general welfare of its members. It is within this social framework that internal adjustment has to be made. Only then, the person becomes a person who is acceptable as a member of society.

It is an undesirable fact that social forces are in constant flux. They are constantly moving forward and changing. Similarly, our internal adjustment is also affected by various stresses. As such, mental health is a process of adjustment that involves compromise and adaptation, enhancement and continuity. Due to the importance of personal and social aspects, some psychologists have defined mental health as the ability of the individual to make personal and social adjustments.

It would be appropriate here to explain the term "adjustment". If one can establish a satisfying relationship between oneself and one's environment, between one's needs, desires and others, or if one can meet the demands of a situation. He has achieved adjustment. Adjustment brings happiness because it implies that emotional conflicts and tensions are resolved and relieved.

Other definitions of mental health refer to such abilities as making decisions to set responsibilities according to one's abilities, finding satisfaction, success and happiness in accomplishing everyday tasks, living effectively with one another, and showing thoughtful behavior.

Generally, a mentally healthy person has an understanding of his motives and desires, his weaknesses and strong points. He can evaluate his behavior objectively, and accept his trivialities and weaknesses. He can give and accept love, make friendships that are satisfying and lasting and that make him feel connected.

He has developed a philosophy of life that gives meaning and purpose to his daily activities. This philosophy is related to this world and discourages the tendency to move away or escape from the world. This causes him to do something concrete about his problems. He does not abstain from responsibility or duty.

Such a person has developed the ability to tolerate disappointments and disappointments in his daily life. He shows emotional maturity in his behavior. This means that he is capable of regulating emotions such as fear, aggression, love, jealousy and expresses them in a socially desirable manner. "He does not go to pieces as a result of this fear, anger and anxieties". He has a wide range of interests and generally leads a balanced life of work, rest and recreation.

2. Essay on the foundation of mental health:


The foundation of mental health refers to some basic and important factors on which a person's mental health depends.

ये कारक इस प्रकार हैं:

(A) Heredity or hereditary factor.

(b) भौतिक कारक।

(C) Fundamental social forces as home, school, neighborhood and community.

(d) Satisfaction of basic or basic needs in childhood.

(ए) वंशागति:

It provides raw material, or individual capacity. This sets limits for his mental health. What is the ability of personal heritage in relation to the presence of development, intelligence and the like. The development and use of these possibilities is largely determined by environmental opportunities. Investigation has shown that heredity can lead a person to develop a particular type of mental illness when he is under extreme stress.

Even in psychoanalysis and psychopathic personality tendencies, heredity factors may play some role. The mentally defective and weak minded are quite prominent in the production of a number of hereditary factors. In Wallin's words, "faulty heredity may furnish a fertile soil for the development of mental and nervous diseases, but as far as minor personality malformations are concerned, heredity supplies only a pre-determined condition".

(बी) Physical factors:

Physical factors contribute significantly to mental health. A straight posture, a victorious smile, color in the cheeks, a sense of elation promotes a sense of personality protection and has an impact on other people. People with greater strength, better looks, and stronger health enjoy a social benefit in developing personality characteristics.

A person with a sense of physical well-being enjoys a good temperament and is enthusiastic and intellectually alert. He has a desire to live, achieve and be happy. No one can deny that physical health improves mental vitality because it increases motivation and drive.

It has been observed that loss of appetite or sleepiness during work creates fatigue, and can adversely affect our mental health. Sick people find it more difficult to adjust to new situations than healthy people. Vitamin deficiency factors have been found in many personality difficulties. Fatal anemia, for example, lacks red vessels and causes symptoms of apathy, irritability, depression, and anxiety.

Again, a person suffering from severe defects may have adjustment problems, due to internal feelings that they are not able to adequately deal with. Positively, a person who follows a clean diet is concerned with food, drink, elimination, bathing, physical activity, work, sleep, rest, relaxation, disease prevention and correction of doshas, ​​the possibility of good mental health is more.

(C) Social situation:

Social factors are related to the person's society in which he or she lives, interactional processes, and his / her social functioning with other individuals. The social environment shapes the knowledge, skills, interests, attitudes, habits, values, and goals that one achieves. Every person is born into a society that affects the content of his behavior.

Among the social factors, home, school and community are the most important. Let us consider the house first. Parents who give affection and protection to their children contribute to their mental health. Parents who are nervous, stressed or self-centered, over-protective rejecting, overbearing or inconsistent in disciplinary practices or who are partial in dealing with their children are laying the foundation for mental disabilities or malaise. On the other hand, parents who share their lives and times with their family and children, who show interest in their children's development, play with or work with them, develop a mentally healthy attitude Help to do.

Broken houses or unstable homes where parents are in constant conflict produce a large percentage of children with adjustment problems. A good home, on the other hand, where there is a harmonious relationship between the parents, where the parents understand the needs and interests of their children and where there is an atmosphere of happiness and freedom, greatly contribute to the mental health of every member gives.

The school can also develop its own sense of personal worth, social development and social competence, if its experiences are satisfactory and if they generate impressive responses. A good school provides an environment in which every pupil is respected as an individual. It offers courses rich in student activities, meeting and needs and interests, such as co-curricular activities such as theatomy, athletics, debate, which promote the physical and emotional development of their students. Such a school is a positive factor for the development of sound mental health.

The community provides the framework and climate within which the family lives and develops. Therefore, a healthy environment and a streamlined network of public and private community services of the highest possible quality should be provided. These services will meet such needs as love and affection, provide a sense of belonging to their members, and provide opportunities for group anticipation and emotional release.

Some of these community services should be library and reading room for general public, social education centers, well recreational programs, vocational and educational guidance bureau for youth, child-guidance clinics, child-building, mentally and physically ill hospitals Can. Provision for family counseling in urban and rural areas such as family-life institutions, maternity and child welfare centers.

(D) Satisfaction of basic or basic requirements:

Much depends on mental health in childhood and later on adequate satisfaction of our basic or basic needs. These are physical as well as emotional or psychological. To meet physical needs, physical needs have to be "relieved of hunger, thirst, fatigue, lack of sleep, physical pain, exercise, heat or cold and some stresses in the person that should be relieved."

Psychological or emotional needs are also called ‘ego needs’ which must be satisfied to maintain ‘self’. They are as important as biological needs. There are two main needs. First of all, we need a sense of security idea love and affection for those who are important to us - our parents, our friends and our fellow men. We want to have a warm and satisfying relationship with other people.

This feeling of security comes mostly through love which has elements like understanding, trust, cooperation and affection. When the child feels safe, he is assured that his parents take care of him, want him and accept him as he is. Accepted in this way and the child can establish a healthy relationship with the outside world. For a person with a sense of security, the world is a friendly and safe place. Such a person likes people and feels comfortable with them.

The second ego is required for recognition or relationship as a person of value and importance. Substantial satisfaction of this need provides a sense of adequacy, self-enhancement. In order that this requirement is satisfied in the child, parents and others must demonstrate their affection and acceptance and inculcate in the child what they want to do. Once the child realizes the adequacy and importance, he will be able to cope, and if possible, solve the problem that confronts him.

Other than these two needs to grow independently, the need to play and the need to belong to a group. The need to grow independently is often not properly satisfied in our homes. Our parents are mostly protective. They find satisfaction in their children who depend on them forever. Usually, youth are not allowed to think and decide for themselves.

3. Essay on defense or adjustment mechanism:

We have seen, that our needs cannot always be adequately satisfied due to many constraints and difficulties. These barriers cause frustration and stress. Constant frustrations of basic necessities of air lead to mental debility or serious illnesses. All frustrations give rise to mental conflicts. These frustrations and mental conflicts threaten a person's psychological balance.

But the human person is equipped with mental abilities to protect himself from his mental dangers, as his body is equipped with powers to protect himself from physical threats or distress. These mental systems or protective devices are known as 'ego defenses' or defense mechanisms or adjustment mechanisms. They are protective in that they help the person overcome the threats to his ego.

They reduce the distress caused by disappointments and conflicts. They soften one's failure, preserve internal harmony and enable the individual to adapt or adjust for disturbing experiences. Therefore, they are also called adjustment mechanisms. Some important defense mechanisms are compensation, rationalization, projection, detection, substitution and sublimation, suppression, negativity, empathy, withdrawal and daydreaming or fantasy.

When we are striving for a deficiency by directing our energies to some other aspect of the personality that has no deficiency, we are using the mechanism of compensation. We try to overcome a failure or deficiency in one area through the recognition of another. For example, an academically weak student may work hard and at times show his aptitude in dramaturgy.

Demosthenes, one of the greatest founders of all time, was a stutterer, but he overcome his guilt by hard work and determination. It shows more than compensation. A boy who is physically weak and deprived may turn into a bully. This is an example of socially undesirable compensation.

In rationalization we give reasons that are laudable rather than real and true to our behavior and justify it. A student who does not know how to play badminton well cannot participate in sports, and justifies his non-participation by saying, "I don't want to play badminton, it's no fun." Rationalization amount to justify or make excuses.

Rationalization takes the form of "sour grapes" when we insist that the things we have or cannot have are not worth having. A student who has failed the exam two or three times may argue, "Only creamers pass such an exam." This is called the 'sour-grape' system, based on which the hypothetical 'grapes are sour'.

Rationalization is known as the "sweet-lemon mechanism". This is exemplified by a house-wife who lives in a small house due to limited financial means, but who present the qualities of small houses by saying that they are cozier and more comfortable.

Presenting others with our own shortcomings, desires or moral flaws as a means of reducing our own guilt or inadequacy is called projection. In this way, we draw others' attention from our shortcomings. A student who has cheated in an examination can satisfy himself by saying that others have cheated as well, this is a regular practice all along.

Identity is an adjustment mechanism that enables one to derive satisfaction from the success of other people, groups or organizations. Students often identify themselves with their favorite teachers. Hero-worship is a form of identification. As a result of this tantra we adopt the costumes and habits of our favorite actors, teachers, friends and movie-stars, in costume, in speech and in lifestyle.

In substitution, the original goals or desires are replaced by others. They are difficult to achieve when the original goals are difficult. A student who has not been accepted for admission by a medical college can satisfy himself by becoming a nurse.

Sublimation involves a mechanism in which our unacceptable desires or activities are redirected into socially desirable channels. An unmarried woman with an interest in children can express her repressed motherhood by entangling herself in her orphanage work or in any child welfare institution.

By the redirection of impulses, the individual not only gives expression to his or her impulses in socially desirable channels, but also personal satisfaction. Great works of art, music, science and literature are often described as narrated works of our primitive impulses, that is, the poetry of Dante.

In suppression our strong emotional thoughts and unpleasant memories that do not fit with our social values ​​and norms are cut off from consciousness and thrown into the unconscious. It is the process of unconsciousing our unpleasant and conflict-generating emotions and desires. These feelings and desires threaten our 'ego, or our well-being, hence the protective device of repression.

Regression means reversing or reversing the level of behavior of an infant or child when we encounter a problem. Instead of facing it and facing it in a mature way, we go back or come back again. As such, we would not be expected to meet the demands of any problematic situation. A five-year-old child can be born when a sibling is born and feels neglected, unaffected, and depressed.

Feeling miscured, he may resort to the behavior patterns of earlier years. He may start wetting the bed or he may experience difficulty feeding himself. Negativity consists in becoming contradictory, stubborn or rebellious when a problem reacts to a situation that depresses us by becoming negative.

In empathy, the person avoids the need to solve their problems by seeking the sympathy of others. A student, for example, who is not doing well in studies rather than actually discovering the cause and is trying to improve himself, may be satisfied with the sympathy of the other, which he can remove by stating Is how his family is in big trouble. Refusal to face the problem may be expressed sometime in withdrawal behavior.

Failure and criticism make many people timid, promiscuous and retiring. They are so afraid of failure that they avoid carrying out their responsibilities. To cope with their problems, there is no risk of failure in relationship with them. Reverting to the act of fantasy or daydreaming is a form of withdrawal behavior.

In this world phantom, all our desires and ambitions are fulfilled without any effort; Here we succeed in every of our ventures. The habit of daydreaming can accustom us to the extent that phantom life may be more desirable, more desirable than real life.

These adjustment mechanisms are used by both well-adjusted and deformed ones. The difference is that while the former use them sparingly, the latter use them frequently and in socially unwelcome channels. The psychotic or psychotic person constantly depends on them.

It is to be noted that these mechanisms generally represent unconscious attempts on behalf of an individual to solve their problem and maintain the integrity of their personality. But if these mechanisms are used repeatedly, there is a possibility of our personality changes for the horse, leading to malnutrition conditions or mental illness or mental disorders or mental disorders or psychosomatic complaints.

4. Essay on Meaning and Purpose of Mental Hygiene:

With the advancement of scientific knowledge and research, we now have a better understanding of mental illness as it emerges in various forms, its symptoms, its causes, and treatment. As a result of these advances, we have knowledge of certain principles which, if practiced properly, will protect us from developing mental illness or suffering from maladies. In other words, these principles will help individuals maintain emotional balance.

Definitions of mental hygiene:

1. Collenic:

"Menial hygiene is a set of conditions that enable a person to live in peace with himself and others".

2. AJ Rosanoff:

"Mental hygiene attempts to assist people with problems as well as present ways to deal with problems."

3. SK Dani:

"Mental hygiene is mostly a science of mental health principles, from our understanding of the causes and morbidity of mental illness".

4. Crow and Crow:

"Mental hygiene is a science related to human welfare and pervades all areas of human relations".

5. Diver:

"Mental hygiene means examining the laws of mental health and taking measures or advocating for its protection".

Objectives of mental hygiene:

Doctors who treat mental disorders have set three objectives of mental hygiene:

1. Prevention of mental illness.

2. Protection of mental health.

3. Treatment of persons suffering from mental disorders.

Elements of mental hygiene:

Mental hygiene generally consists of the following elements:

(i) शारीरिक स्वास्थ्य।

(ii) Intellectual Health.

(iii) emotional health.

(iv) Interest and qualifications.

(v) अच्छा वातावरण।

Mental hygiene is related to these principles of life which will serve as a guide for human adjustment. It includes ways of living that promote the development of a holistic and socially adequate personality.

These ways of living help a person to get along with himself and with his peers, to behave desirable, to avoid conflicts, which bring about misdeeds, and to advance intelligent, rational behavior. Huh. These theories have been drawn from philosophy, psychology, religion, ethics, sociology, biology, physiology, medicine, psychiatry and general-stress.

Mental hygiene has three objectives:

(i) prevention of mental disorders through an understanding of the relationship between overall personality development and life experiences;

(ii) Protection of mental health of the individual and group, and

(iii) Discovery and use of therapeutic measures to cure mental illness.

Among these three approaches, preventive, preservative and curative, the most important and modern approach is the preventive approach. This approach is heavily influenced by the principles of public health. According to Kaplan and Baron, this approach is based on the principle that the best way to insure well-adjusted individuals is to surround them with environmental influences that allow each person to develop their full potential, achieve and achieve emotional stability Will enable. Personal and social adequacy. "Preventive mental hygiene begins at home, and its principles are important in school and other areas as well.

5. Essay on mental hygiene concept in education:

It is being felt by all progressive teachers that the goal of mental health and education is the same. The aim of education is the all-round development of the human personality. This is to help every person to become a well-adjusted person in their society. Mental health is also related to harmonious development of personality. This is clear from Headfield's definition of mental health.

He states, "Mental health is the complete and harmonious work of the whole personality."

This education can contribute to the attainment of mental health which is increasingly accepted in all quarters. There are forces, movements and trends in modern educational practice that indicate this belief.

The importance being given to feelings and emotions as a factor in growth and development, including education, recognition that all behavior is complex and that it is deep with emotions, recognition that all behavior is due , Increased importance is being attached. Personal and human factors in education, ie, the importance of inter-personal relationships in day-to-day teaching, sensitivity to modern students' personal differences in interest and competence.

Another proof of this view is the notion that expression and release, through qualified creative effort, are demanded by the growing mind and bodies, and that the idea addresses the basic human needs in course development and selection of subject matter and experiences must be given. children.

6. Essay on mental health of class teacher:

A mentally healthy and well-adjusted teacher is instrumental in promoting the mental health of school children and achieving the mental health objective of education. If the mental health of the teacher is insufficient, it is bound to adversely affect the mental health of the school children. To be mentally healthy, a teacher has to develop and cultivate some personal professional qualities.

Among desirable personal qualities, vigilance, enthusiasm and interest in pupils and classroom activities, the ability to maintain a natural and pleasant person to person relationship, harmony and friendliness, identification of one's own mistakes; Democracy and courtesy regarding patience, empathy, honesty, fairness in dealing with students, good student behavior and consistent behavior; Flexibility in opinion, belief and attitude, a good sense of humor and breadth of interests, have often been noted in various studies on the subject.

On the other hand, undesirable traits or traits are bad temperament, intolerance, inattentiveness to demands, tendency to indifference and insincerity, tendency to use satire and derision, tendency to talk excessively and downward to effigies, apathy, harshness . Process and Perfectionist Approach.

Occupational qualities that are compatible with mental health goals in education, having a good knowledge of the subject matter in which they have special ability and willingness to teach effectively, if there is a desire to improve communication skills, competence and professional skills Achieve efficiency through In professional books and magazines, the ability to work together and share experiences with others, children's acceptance and understanding, realistic perception of social expectations and respect for their social role as well as one's own and one's profession.

It should be noted that a teacher's mental health is reflected in these personal and professional qualities, which depend on his personal effort, other factors, including his upbringing, education, and culture. This means that the mental health of the teacher is closely associated with the mental health of his family community and the socio-economic and cultural conditions attaining the latter. This loads us into a discussion of some "potential dangers" to her mental health.

These are their personality factors or difficulties, which arise from biological or early environmental influences, adequate preparation for teaching, unhygienic care, inadequate and poor pay, other economic difficulties during uncertain tenure, crowded classes, heavy workload, Especially in primary classes. More attention to undesirable community status and lack of appreciation, lack of purpose or objectives, lack of education, minor details of techniques and methodology.

Another source of tension and anxiety as well as conflict is that he is expected to be a perfect man, an adversary of the ascetic life, possessing all virtues and no failures. They are likely to develop anxiety and stress by finding themselves under public examinations and scrutiny at all times.

Of course an important antagonist to these dangers is respect for oneself and one's profession, which the teacher must develop. This refers to the development of a positive attitude towards reviewing and evaluating the advantages of the teaching profession in terms of opportunities for professional work, intellectual stimulation, and personnel satisfaction, which is very essential for mental health.

Regarding the importance of teacher's mental health status as a fundamental factor in the mental health of school children, Townsend wants more attention to be paid to the selection of students in teacher training colleges. Accordingly, only "credit collectors " or those who are merely scholarly high would not be suitable candidates.

Similarly, individuals who are lonely, who need friendliness, who are victims of anxieties, emotional up-sets, and imperfections or defects without a homely environment, who have no strong motivation, are the most sought after modern work. Are clearly ignorant.

7. Essay on mental health of students:

The mental functioning of students is affected to a large extent by the daily functioning of mentally healthy teachers. These teachers know that the problem mental health of school going children lies in their needs and their satisfaction. Conditions at school, which meet their fundamental emotional and social needs, are to be provided.

These requirements are for security, for manipulation, for expansion of cultural and social contacts, for recognition and acceptance, for acceptance and approval. It should be noted that these needs must first be satisfied by their parents at home.

Children who are rejected, over-protected or over-motivated or treated indifferently by parents whose parents are serious and perfectionists are emotionally equipped to face the disappointments that come with it One can enter school life for them.

The child goes to school from the protective environment of the home. New people, new authority figures, new ideas, new experience of being a group are exposed. Do not let the child fail that he is being sent to school as a punishment for being naughty at home.

If teachers are encouraging and they understand her needs, if their discipline is not sympathetic and too rigid or rigid, if they allow children to behave as children instead of young adults, if the school is subject to negative rules Provides a member of rather interesting group activities, adaptations that the child has to perform, will facilitate and create no complexity.

It is necessary that the child develops a sense of belonging to the school. This will be possible when the atmosphere at home in school is that of love and understanding, free from partiality and invisible comparisons.

Other principles and practices that would be favorable to the mental health of students during the early school period, ranging from 6 to 12 years, are as follows:

(A) Helping the child gain control of their developing body through constant physical care, meditation, and opportunities to exercise their muscles through sports and sports activities.

(b) Respect for individual differences in students, by providing instruction according to their abilities and interests.

(c) Provision of activities such as drama, art and painting, handicraft and sports for emotional expansion and self-expression.

(d) Provision of group activities in the school by organizing scout-groups, guides, clubs and other clubs to fulfill their desire to form groups for the period after this period (6 to 12 years).

(pts) Attempts should be made by teachers to see that children do not develop feelings of inferiority and vain. Therefore, do not pay attention to the boundaries of the child, its failure and obstacles. The provision of tasks that gives them a sense of adequacy and success is an important principle that should be practiced at this stage.

The period from 6 to 12 years is followed by adolescence (13 to 19 years). It is a period of transition from childhood to maturity - A "between ages". A teenager is no longer a child and yet not a man. Being in a period of infection, they have peculiar problems for infection to lose an established and accustomed position. They have not yet attained a new status, for which the factors hindering developmental change are driving it. He may suffer from transitional difficulties of insecurity, disorientation and anxiety.

Mental health of adolescents requires understanding and satisfaction of the special needs of this period.

Here are:

(i) requirement of the position,

(ii) the need for independence,

(iii) the need for a satisfactory philosophy of life,

(iv) requires a proper orientation to the opposite sex, and

(v) Need of guidance in selecting the vocation and preparing oneself for the vocation.

These special requirements will be satisfied if the following suggestions are considered and made:

(i) Kishore should be helped to accept his body with all changes and instabilities.

(ii) Provision of appropriate sports and practice in schools.

(iii) Sex education, given in a scientific and objective manner, emphasizing the values ​​of healthy sex life.

(iv) Emotional emancipation from parents and teachers, by allowing them to separate from adults and encouraging them to think to decide for themselves to take responsibility.

(v) Enhancing their sense of sufficiency by providing them with tasks that they can successfully do.

(vi) Provision of appropriate vocational guidance and counseling facilities in the school set-up.

(vii) To provide them with a healthy philosophy of life through lectures, discussions, appropriate readings and contacts with men of thought.

(viii) Helping adolescents to develop healthy peer age, relationships and friendships through appropriate opportunities and an attitude to their friends, gangs, groups as well as their opinions and decisions about these relationships. .

8. Essay on mental health and curriculum:

What would be the course form from a mental health standpoint? This is another important aspect of education that needs to be considered in the context of the goals of 'mental health' through education.

The objectives of mental health in education can be achieved if the following principles are seen in curriculum construction:

(i) Individual differences in the child's need, interest and experience, learning ability should become central factors.

(ii) The syllabus should give importance to activities of genuine value and interest and which have a definite relation to the life of the child and the community.

(iii) It should be flexible and adjustable to meet the requirement of the students at every stage.

(iv) It should be dynamic and modification should be possible so that it conforms to the changing social conditions and reflects the latest developments in educational philosophy and psychology, the student should have feet for competent participation in the home and in social and professional activities. .

(v) It should include many extra-curricular activities of the school program such as dramatics, writing, sports, hobbies etc.

(vi) An important principle of curriculum-making should be its 'totality' or 'integration' rather than the traditional collection of content. This would be possible if it is an activity and course and represents the human experience overall.

9. Essays on mental health and methods of teaching and classroom practices:

Methods of teaching and classroom practices that provide students with the satisfaction of succeeding in their school work and which reduce the emotional shock of failure play a key role in achieving mental health. The underlying principles of such methods are numerous. Teachers should consider pupil failure as a challenge and not as a crime or defeat or humiliation.

They should encourage the habit of freedom and a sense of adventure among the students. All learning activities should be properly motivated by the teacher through the use of various social urges and the acquired interests of the students.

Learning theory, which is the cornerstone of such methods of teaching as the project method and the Dalton scheme, is another important principle. The teacher should strive to increase the purposefulness of the school's work by making the goals clear, desirable and attainable.

The fragmentation of learning, the tendency to make learning conditions separate and remote from life situations, leaning toward authoritarianism and restrictions on freedom, over-emphasis on speed in learning and the ignorance of students' ignorance with their malpractices are some questionable practices. In our schools that are harmful to the mental health of school children.

10. Essay on mental health and school administration:

School administration conducive to mental health will re-organize educational policy and practices in terms of students' happiness and well-being. It sees the machinery of management as a means of carrying out an educational program designed primarily to meet human needs.

It will strive to make human relations within the school system more satisfying and complete. To ensure teacher morale and efficiency, school administration will have to be more concerned with the human aspects of education.

Maintenance of democratic relations with teachers, not only oral communication, but also communication of emotions, are other high lights of the administration for the goals of mental health through education.

11. Essay on mental health and discipline:

If the mental health objectives are to be achieved then the concept of discipline has to be changed. The order which arises from compulsion is not necessarily good discipline. This includes a heartfelt performance of duties as well as independently chosen activities. Good discipline aims to encourage the development of the unique personality of each person.

It comes through self-directing, which is a personal direction of purposeful and self-determined actions. This implies an understanding of the child's behavior and how it is affected by various environmental factors.

The teacher's direction holds its place in effective discipline, but it is not meant to be authoritarian anyway. Nor can it be achieved through satire and derision. A very important means of good discipline is to keep students busy and useful! ' Occupied. Other tools are rewards that are inherent in the task at hand, the recognition of the group goes on, the confidence of the students in the students and the ability to exercise positive authority, the pleasant classroom environment, as I would as a personal child, time and change Am Total status.